The database management application JEntigrator.

White paper.
Alexander Imas(
2017, Darmstadt.


The  JEntigrator is  a file-based scalable database management application implemented as a java program. It is intended to manage semi-structured  evolving data objects and to serve as a basis to build applications using such data objects. It is published as an open source project under the GNU GPL license on the github platform. Binaries can be found on the maven platform.

2.  The concept.

There are hundreds of database management systems on the market. The reason to develop another one is the fact that existing systems don’t efficiently support management of evolving data objects.

According to the object-oriented paradigm the real world  is considered as a set of objects. An object has a state and  behavior. A real object can be represented as a program object having a set of named fields reflecting object’s state and a set of methods reflecting its  behavior. We distinguish evolving and none evolving objects.  None evolving objects change only values of state variables during their lifetime. Number and names of state variables and set of methods do not change. Evolving objects can change a set of state variables and methods during their lifetime.

A relational database keeps data in tables. The structure of data objects defines the scheme of the database – a set of related tables. The database designer creates the scheme and the application designer creates a front-end  application that provides interface to the end user and communication with the database.  For not evolving data objects all this work will be done only once in the developing time. The end user takes over  management of state variables in the working time through the application interface.

A much more complicated challenge is  management of evolving data. Both the scheme and the application code must be changed when data objects change their structure.  That dramatically increases costs and time of the application evolution(migration).

NoSQL databases have no scheme. The application developer doesn’t need the assistance of the database designer and can complete the evolution himself .  The participation of  the application developer in migration  is inevitable.

A facet-oriented data model provides the possibility to design/evolve data objects in the working time without any coding. This work can be delegated to the end user. The facet-oriented data model is based on the assumption that a real object can be represented as a composition of more elementary components called facets.

A facet is defined as a portion of data and associated with it behavior.  For example  the phone facet includes the phone number (data) and the call (behavior). Another example is the image facet including the image file (data) and viewing of the image(behavior).   A  facet can be implemented as a program object where the data component is represented as a set of named fields and the behavior is implemented as a facet's handler – the code processing these fields.  

The most fundamental fact is that the set of facets is essentially  smaller and stabler than the set of data objects. The second important  fact is that the data object structure can be built or modified in the same fashion as the content – by assigning data to the object  without changing of the application code.  The data object can be considered as a facet container and the data object design means to add/remove facets to/from it . The application developer must provide the permanent part of the application: a pool of  facets and the interface to manage  universal data objects – facet data containers.  The end user takes over the design and maintenance of data objects, again, without any coding.  Both end users and developers benefit from this architecture. An end user can evolve data objects without assistance of developers. A facet developer must provide only a facet code without intervention into the application code.

The initial application JEntigrator contains only a small pool of common facets and interface to manage universal facet containers  called entities. To adapt the application to user’s business  area the JEntigrator uses the extension mechanism. An extension is an entity containing a library with facet handlers relevant to certain business area. It is enough to insert an extension entity into the database to enhance the facets pool. The application code stay intact.  


3.  Demo.

Lets take a closer look on demo databases . The web viewer provides read access to databases through a web browser.  The viewer responses on user’s  actions and shows the relevant context page. The demo home page  contains four demo databases: Blank ,  Community    Movie and Northwind. Each database illustrates different aspects of the application.  The Blank is an empty database containing minimum of  entities and facets. The   Community database demonstrates some common  facets. The Movie database  implements a graph  database using the data from the well known sample neo4js movie graph database.  The Northwind database  simulates a relational  database using the data from the of well known sample Microsofts Northwind relational database. The click on the database item shows the base navigator  context – the origin point for navigation through the database.   Note how simple and intuitive it is to navigate through the database and find entities. The data inside of a database is fully transparent. You can investigate any entity in the entity editor context  , browse files in the entity’s folder through the folder context , integrate data from  multiple entities into the view context  ,  etc.   Chapters below tell more how to use different contexts.

3.1. Select entities.

There are three ways to find searched entities: select by properties, search by label and list by category.

As mentioned above , each data object in the JEntigrator  is represented by the universal facet container called entity. An entity has two mandatory fields – identification key and label , unique within the database. A key is a final string assigned to the entity by creation that cannot be changed later. A label is a human friendly name that can be changed during entities lifetime. A third mandatory field is a type string that define the primary facet of the entity – the category. Some fields belong to the property group and are included into the global database index. The label and entity(type)  fields are properties.

 The Design item in the  base navigator shows the property selector. To find entities having certain  value of the property select the property and its value. The entity selector shows all corresponding entities. For example , in the Community  database selection of property entity with Contact value shows all contacts the Entity  selector.  The click on the Entity button opens the Entity Facets context. The click on Value  button shows the list of all selected entities. The click on the Property  button shows the list of all entities, having the selected property independent of its values.

The  Search item in the  base navigator  shows the search context panel  to select entities  by labels. Type a part of label into the input text box and press the Enter button. The list of labels appears in the entities selector. Select an entity to open a list of its facets.

The All categories item in the  base navigator shows a list of all facets. The click on the facet item shows the list of all entities having this facet assigned. That’s all about  standard selection tools.  Special selection procedures may be created by programming additional query entities like the template Query all entities. The first important note to make is that :

3.2. Work with entities.

3.2.1. The structure of an entity.

Each entity is represented  by a separate XML file  in the JEntigrator. Logically it contains a set of sections called elements having a unique name within an entity. There are two mandatory elements – attributes and property. Attributes contains system information  and property - fields included into the global database index. Number and names other elements in the entity depend on assigned facets.  

An element in turn can contain any number of cores. A core is a set of three named strings called type, name and value. A core must have unique name within the element. Let us inspect entities Icons  and ACTED_IN in the Movie  database.  We can see that both entities besides mandatory attributes and property contain two other elements – fhandler  and  jfacet.  These elements keep information about programs that can be used to process this entity. The next important note to make is that :

In other words the  JEntigrator  is a data-driven application.

The folder facet assigns a separate directory to the entity where files can be stored in the native format. For example the Icons contains all icons.

3.2.2. The functionality of an entity.

The JEntigrator  provides access to functionality of an entity through the entity facets  list that displays a list of  facets assigned to an entity. A user opens the desired facet’s context to interacts with the entity. Again:

3.2.3. Complex entities.

In the real world many objects are compounds  of other objects. The JEntigrator provides the possibility to set component-container relation between entities. A component may have many different containers ( n to m relation type).  A complex entity is a container having some components. Components can be containers too.  Note that this construct makes the database relational in the sense that:

The standard way to access the certain facet of the certain component  may be a long navigation through components and facets.  The digest context shows an overview of a complex entity as a tree sorted by facets and components. A user call this context from the “Context” menu in the “Entity” facet. The “Components”  menu item shows the structure of the complex entity.

3.2.4. The graph.

A graph is one of very common types of relations. A graph data structure consists of nodes connected by edges. The clone of Neo4j  demo database Movie  includes  the extension graph adding the graph functionality to the JEntigrator.  We can see facets Nodes  and  Edges in the list  of categories.  Persons and movies belong to nodes, relations ACTED_IN, DIRECTED, etc.. belong to edges. The facet node displays a list of connections to other nodes in the graph. The click on the Graph menu item shows the node and its relations to other nodes as a graph.  The click on a node or an edge displays the pop up menu.  The nodes menu consists of 4 items: Entity, Relations, Expand and Network. The Entity  menu item opens the facet list of the node. The Relations clears display and shows the relations of the node. The Expand adds relations of the node to the graph. The Network shows all nodes and relationship connected to a node. The demo  is a connected graph so Network  shows all nodes and all edges in the database. It takes some time  to build large networks. The graph context displays controls to search nodes and filter edges.

The review of the graph extension let us make some important notes.  

3.2.5. Associations.

The JEntigrator provides two ways to group data objects together : bookmarks and indexes. “Data objects” here are entities, files or web links. An entity of the bookmarks type is an unordered  collection of links to original objects. The  entity Authors  in the Community  database is an example of bookmarks.  An entity of the  index  type contains links to original data objects hierarchically ordered as a tree.  The Favorites  entity in the Community  database is an example of index. Note that:

3.2.6. Tables.

Entities having types ‘view’  or ‘query’ serve as table generators. They content entity selectors in form of class files stored within entity’s folder.  The query selector class  returns only a list of selected entities. The structure of the table is defined by information within the query entity. The view selector returns the ready table model. The corresponding facet loads this class, makes selection and represents results in form of table.  For example  tables in the Northwind database are implemented as Queries and views as Views . Note that  the JEntigrator  builds tables for views and queries by collecting data from entity files located on the disk. This procedure is slower as getting tables in traditional DBMS, where tables are native data containers located in the memory.

4.  Summary.

The application  JEntigrator aims to manage  evolving semi-structured data objects. The database is implemented as a file directory where each data object called entity is stored in a separate XML file.  An  entity is considered as an universal facet container. The evolution (migration ) of an entity is carried by adding/removing facets to it through the GUI without any coding. Entities of the same type may have different sets of facets or properties. The database contains the global properties index including all properties of all entities. An entity contains three mandatory properties : an identification  key (immutable and unique within the database),  a label ( editable string  unique within the database ) and an entity .  The key  is a string assigned to the entity by creation. The  label is a human friendly name of the entity. The entity is a type (category) of the entity.  A user manage entities through the application GUI.

Distinctive features.

5.  Third party software used.


 Oracle Java EE




















Development tools.

Eclipse IDE : Eclipse Java EE Neon

LibreOffice : Version:

Libraries included into databases.




Numerous code snippets found on the Internet.